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Protection/Mitigation of runaway reactions
The following emergency measures can be adopted to avoid or reduce the consequences of runaway reactions:
Emergency cooling: the activation of additoanl or emergency (crash) cooling of the reactor content to remove the excess heat generated by th exothermic reaction.
Quenching:Stoping inhibition. A runaway reaction, if caught early can often be haltedby adding a suitable chemical component(inhibitor/gneching agent) to cancel the effect of the reaction catalyst. common mesures include neutralitzation, quenching with water or another suitable diluent or dumping the reactor content into another vessel which contains a quench media.
Emergency pressure relief: Release of the reactor content to an mergency effluent handling/discharge system via a pressure release device (valve or bursting disk) in case the reactor content pressure reaches predeterminated limits the
ESCIS, Expert Commission for Safety in the Swiss Chemical Industry, Thermal Process Safety, Switzerland, 1993.