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Also called specific gravity. Ratio of the density of a substance to that of a standard substance. The usual standard of comparison for solids and liquids is water at 4? C (39.2? F), which has a density of 1.000 kg per litre (62.4 pounds per cubic foot). Gases are commonly compared to dry air, which has a density of 1.29 g per litre under so-called standard conditions (0? C and 1 atmosphere pressure).