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It is the ability of matter to store heat.
Ratio of heat absorbed by a material to the temperature change. It is usually expressed as Joules per Kelvin in terms of the actual amount of material being considered. It is also called Thermal capacitance.
At sufficiently high temperatures, the heat capacity per atom tends to be the same for all elements. For metals of higher atomic weight, this approximation is already a good one at room temperature, giving rise to the law of Dulong and Petit (see Dulong-Petit law). For other materials, heat capacity and its temperature variation depend on differences in energy levels for atoms (available quantum states). Heat capacities are measured with some variety of calorimeter, and, using the formulation of the third law of thermodynamics, heat-capacity measurements became important as a means of determining the entropies of various materials.