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Boundary layer effects
The total thickness of fluid over which a solid surface exerts a differential effect when a fluid past it. The layer of fluid next to the solid surface is brought to rest by wall adhesion,reducing the mean velocity setting up a viscous motion in adjacent layers. The boundary layer governs the rate of heat, mass or momentum between the solid surface and the homogeneous bulk of the fluid. The velocity of the layer differs significantly from that of the main fluid stream, and is therefore of considerable importance in heat transfer problems.